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Unit 5. Chess

History

The history of chess can be traced back nearly 1500 years, although the earliest origins are uncertain. The earliest predecessor of the game probably originated in India, before the 6th century AD. From India, the game spread to Persia. When the Arabs conquered Persia, chess was taken up by the Muslim world and subsequently spread to Southern Europe. In Europe, chess evolved into roughly its current form in the 15th century.

The "Romantic Era of Chess" was the predominant chess playing style down to the 1880s. It was characterized by swashbuckling attacks, clever combinations, brash piece sacrifices and dynamic games. Winning was secondary to winning with style. The Romantic era of play was followed by the Scientific, Hypermodern, and New Dynamism eras. In the second half of the 19th century, modern chess tournament play began, and the first World Chess Championship was held in 1886. The 20th century saw great leaps forward in chess theory and the establishment of the World Chess Federation (FIDE). Developments in the 21st century include use of computers for analysis, which originated in the 1970s with the first programmed chess games on the market. Online gaming appeared in the mid-1990s.

Chess remains a highly popular pastime among the general populace. A 2012 survey found that "chess players now make up one of the largest communities in the world: 605 million adults play chess regularly". Chess is played at least once a year by 12% British people; 15% Americans. 23% Germans; 43% Russians; and 70% Indian people.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_chess

Definition

Chess is a  game for two players. It is played on an 8x8 checkered board, with a dark square in each player's lower left corner.

Each player controls its own army of pieces (chessmen). The player who controls White pieces moves first.

The goal in the chess game is to capture the opponent's king. This capture is called 'checkmate'. Checkmate happens once the king is under attack, cannot move and cannot be helped by its own army of chessmen.